Taller Las funciones ambientales de los bosques y su rol en la reducción de la pobreza. Christo...

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Transcript of Taller Las funciones ambientales de los bosques y su rol en la reducción de la pobreza. Christo...

  • Natural Resource Restoration and Pro-poor Rural Development.

    Christo Marais, Dudu Soginga, Michael Kawa & Thabisa Motolwana

    Department of Water Affairs: Natural Resource Management Programmes

  • Presentation Structure

    Some History & Social Context

    Natural Resource Management (NRM) Objectives

    Basic Outputs.

    Extent of Ecosystem Services

    High level Natural Resource Restoration & Management Needs.

    Some Measurement of Ecosystem Services

    Challenges & Opportunities

    Recommendations on a Way Forward

  • Libertas Centre - November 1993

    The question on everybodys lips was - How was conservation of natural resources going to compete against the social demands in post apartheid South Africa?

  • In 1993 - Two Resolutions were Adopted by a Group of Scientists to be Presented to Decision Makers

    to present to local decision makers the threat that invasive alien plants pose to the countrys scarce water resources andto approach the rich north for support in the battle against invasive alien plants and its impacts on biodiversity
  • Who was the target audience? - Reconstruction & Development Programme of President Mandela.

  • A New Beginning April 1994

    In September 1995 the then Minister of Water Affairs and Forestry, Prof. Kader Asmal took the visionary step to include invasive alien plant management as a programme in the departments contribution to the Reconstruction and Development Programme of the new government.

  • Government Decided to Invest R25million in the Clearing of Invasive Alien Plants through the Reconstruction and Development Programme

    The Face of Poverty still haunts South Africa (1997)

  • Prof. Asmal Launching Working for Water?

    And today?

  • The Target Audience Today: Government Priorities

    CrimeEducationHealthJob CreationRural Development
  • Over simplified Spectrum of Degradation

    Bush Encroachments & Invasives

    Desertification

  • Photograph: Courtesy Prof. Rudi van Aarde

    From this!!

  • To This!!

  • And From this!!

  • To This!!

  • And From this!!

  • To This!!

  • Natural Resource Business Stream

    Improved management of natural resources

    Improved water securityImproved biodiversity and ecosystem function/natural processesImproved productive potential of land
  • Socio-Economic Business Stream

    Improved livelihoods of programme beneficiaries

    Employment opportunities in rural areasEmployment opportunities in the natural resource market createdHuman and social capital developed
  • How the NRM Programmes contribute to addressing the objectives?
    Land Management Impacts

  • In total more 1.9 million hectares of invasive alien plants treated and followed up since 1995

  • Nearly 700, 000ha followed up during 2009/10

  • Land Restoration

    1, 387 Hectares

    Heavily Degraded Albany Sub Tropical Thicket Restored

  • Working on Fire

    2008/09 WoFire Attended to 891 fires over an estimated 567, 000 ha.2009/10 WoFire Attended to 747 fires over an estimated 336, 000 ha.During 2009 around 29, 800 fires burnt covering 2.4 million ha.WoFire therefore attended to only 2.5% of the number of fires but 16% of the area burnt.
  • How do the NRM Programmes contribute to addressing the objectives?
    Socio Economic development & employment Impacts

  • 2.32 million Person Days created during 2009/10 (WfW,WFL,WoF & WfWet) andAround 18 million since 1995 (WfW,WFL,WoF & WfWet).
  • More than 26, 000 beneficiaries in Working for Water and Working for Land.1,850 in Working on Fire and1, 500 in Working for Wetlands
  • The Cost to Deliver Services at these Levels

    Working for Water grew from a programme of R25 million a year to

    Working for Water = R695 millionWorking for Land = R32 millionWorking on Fire = R223 millionWorking for Wetlands = R75 million More than R1 billion per year! (and it is still not enough)
  • Current Marketable Ecosystem Services

    Watershed Services

    FlowsFlood/high flowsLow FlowsYield from water infrastructureEcological ReserveSedimentsSiltation of damsWater qualityPurification costsWaterweed management costs

    Climate Change

    Carbon Sequestration
  • Geographical extent of ecosystem benefits

  • High Yield Catchments

  • Carbon sequestration

  • Soil retention

  • Water flow regulation

  • Natural Resource Management Needs

  • Hectares Invaded = 20 million

    Condensed Hectares = 3.7 million

  • 226.bin
  • Whats the Socio-Economic Landscape?

  • Can we measure the marketable services?

  • Impacts of Vegetation Structure Invasive Alien Plants

    (Prinsloo & Scott 1999)

  • Vegetation Densification and the Impacts on Soil after Fire

  • Maloti-Drakensberg

    Upper Thukela

    Good land management practices can increase low flows by 12.8 mil. m3/yr andReduce sediments by 1.2mil. m3/yr.

    Umzimvudu

    Lows flows will increase by 3.8 mil. m3/yr andSediments will reduce by 4.9 mil. m3/yr
  • Opportunities in the Carbon Market: Working for Land in the Eastern Cape Thicket Restoration Programme

  • Above

    ground

    40 3

    7 1

    Litter

    11 1

    1 0.4

    Roots

    25 1.3

    11 0.7

    Soil

    133 27

    95 15

    and falling?

    Total

    209 28

    114 14

    t C ha-1

    Mills et. al. (2005)

    Austral Ecology

  • Challenges & Opportunities

    Government simply does not have enough money to do it on its own.Dire poverty in rural areas, if the livelihood profile is not better after the intervention than before it simply wont work.Legislation on its own is simply not enough.Restoration is expensive.South Africa is not very competitive on the carbon market, the climate simply does not allow it to be.There are opportunities to get local and international resource users involved in restoring ecosystem benefits.The people are out there where the services are required.Job creation and rural development are government priorities.
  • Challenges & Opportunities cont.

    Institutional arrangements is still difficult for rural communities to work with government.We need more primary science when it comes to quantifying ecosystem services.There are extensive opportunities for the sciences to be developed.The programme could effectively become an outdoor class room for students working in the field.
  • Recommendations on the way forward

    If governments can give incentives to the commercial sector why not for the restoration of ecosystem services.NGOs, CBOs and private land users should be incentivised to promote and change land management practices.The focus of government NRM investment needs to be revised in order to unlock private and international investment.Appropriate institutional arrangements need to be established. (CBNRM models?)Uncertainty with regards to the quantification of ecosystem services must be reduced (We must get the science right, models need to be informed by sound natural/ecological science).If you cant beat the socio-economic lobby, join them.
  • Thank You!

  • Acknowledgements

    Dr. Terry Everson Okhombe PES ProjectsMike Powell Thicket PicturesEcosystem Services - James Blignaut, Guy Preston, Kate Philip, Mathieu Rouget, Myles Mander, Jane Turpie, Lozelle du Plessis, Thami Klassen, and Norma TregurthaAndrew WannenburghProf. Rudi van Aarde Sekhukhune Pictures